Flickr: Mmann1988

Atlanta’s Model for the Future of Urban Green Spaces

This article from Greenbiz first appeared on Ensia. 100RC engages in content partnerships with several organizations, and cross-posting does not indicate an endorsement or agreement.

Brilliant shades of purple, yellow and orange beckon hikers and bikers to maturing meadows in the urban center. Parents stroll children along trails cooled by the fragrant breezes of native magnolia, dogwood, oak and long leaf pine trees. Families picnic near a 40-foot cascading waterfall.

This scene in the heart of Atlanta, Georgia, is a far cry from what it was nine years ago. Back then, trucks illegally dumped toxic chemicals, trash and tires here. Kudzu and other weeds flourished, forming ad hoc habitat for rats and copperhead snakes.

Now, the Atlanta BeltLine is wiping out blight with 33 miles of multi-use trails along a historic rail line that encircles the city’s core. The ring of infrastructure is boosting environmental awareness in a metropolis that has been better known for suburban sprawl than parklands. Although other cities are turning abandoned tracks into greenways, the $4.8 billion project connecting 45 neighborhoods offers unique lessons on urban renewal.

Master vision

A master’s degree thesis sparked the movement to build the BeltLine. In 1999, Ryan Gravel, then an architecture student at Georgia Tech, envisioned and fleshed out a plan to build a modern transit system to replace a ring of decaying rail tracks that encircled the capital city.

It took several years of negotiating among politicians, city officials, community advocates, real estate developers, landscape architects and environmentalists to solidify a proposal. Then, in 2006, Atlanta established the Atlanta BeltLine, Inc. (ABI) to lead a renovation funded by private donors and the city that includes bike trails, parks, water management systems, housing, electric transit, art sculptures and more. According to Gravel, the project is the most extensive of its kind in the United States.

“I wanted to make Atlanta a place I wanted to live in,” he said. “Who would have thought that this idea would take off? It has been fun, excruciating and rewarding.”

This network-in-the-making is boosting environmental awareness in a city that used to be better known for its traffic jams and sewage-polluted streams. Efforts to clean up 1,100 acres of contaminated brownfields and plant more than 3,000 indigenous trees and grasses are bringing back biodiversity not seen in decades.

“The native plantings they have done had a tremendous positive impact,” said Berry Brosi, associate professor of environmental science at Emory University. “We found enormous areas in terms of pollinator abundance.”

In fact, an unpublished study Brosi conducted found on average three times as many bee species and five times as many bees in pollinator planting sites along the BeltLine than in mowed grass.

“I noticed for the first time in my backyard, we are seeing bees, butterflies, even fireflies, which is different than four years ago,” said Chad Ralston, who lives nearby and bikes almost daily.

One major reason for the increase in biodiversity has been the native forest created under the supervision of Trees Atlanta, a non-profit organization dedicated to protecting Atlanta’s urban canopy. Trees Atlanta has planted 19 acres of indigenous trees and grasses around the abandoned tracks. Ten more acres of reforestation are planned for next year.

“It has been a challenge in what different parts of the community want and what we want,” said Greg Levine, the organization’s co-executive director and chief program officer. Local residents like the green space, Levine said, but often prefer it manicured.

“They want more mowing, and then you don’t have the pollinator habitat,” Levine said. “They like the look of a meadow, but it takes three years.” Levine said Trees Atlanta and the city have reached an agreement to just mow along the edges of the path once a year, keeping the trails clear. Goats are also used to munch on the non-native kudzu for environmental and economic benefits.

Economic boon

As head of growth and grassroots for ASW Distillery, Ralston helped convince his company to open a new location on a part of the BeltLine known as the Westside Trail. The real estate in the vicinity is booming and is the biggest economic driving force in the city, said Atlanta mayor Kasim Reed.

Meanwhile, Atlanta is discovering that going green can save money. The city was planning to build a $40 million concrete vault and tunnel system to store stormwater in the Fourth Ward. Every time it rained, flooded sewers sent pollution into local streams, and the city already had paid the federal government more than $19 million in fines for its cracked and broken sewer system.

ABI stepped in to work with city officials to develop a better way to deal with storm water and sewage. The plan was to build a park bordering the Eastside Trail that recycles stormwater for a lake, fountain and waterfall. The ABI team saved the city at least $15 million in stormwater infrastructure costs with its innovative design for the Historic Fourth Ward Park.

Cost savings “are where we hook people in,” said Heather Hussey-Coker of ABI. “But we solved one of the issues in a green way, a beautiful way.”